Emotion can be defined as any relatively brief conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a high degree of pleasure or displeasure. Scientific discourse has drifted to other meanings and there is no consensus on a single definition. Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.
It is the most popular standard currently used to systematically categorize the physical expression of emotions, and it has proven useful both to psychologists and to animators. While using the system for several years in their lab and training new FACS coders, they updated the rules and definitions of the system. At first the changes were handed out to the new FACS coders in form of an addendum.
Some context is:. A facial movementcalled a facial action, can be one muscle contracting or several different muscles contracting together. FACS coders go through rigorous training to learn to identify individual facial action units when they are active, and they must meet certain standards of reliability before they are certified.
Traditionally a manual coding systemwhich quantifies all possible movements a person can make with his or her face. Recent advances in computer vision have allowed for reliable automated facial action coding. Below you can see the 20 Action Units offered in the most recent version of FaceReader as well as some frequently occurring or difficult action unit combinations.
Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems FACS provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement.
FACS has been used in a wide range of applied and basic research contexts, from research on emotion, communication, and psychopathology to health psychology and forensics. The main professionals who can benefit from the methodology are:. Traditionally, people have learned FACS via a minimum of hours of self-instruction. The workshop offers a dynamic group setting for learning FACS in about a week, with the benefit of guidance and feedback from an expert.
As you may or may not already know, FACS is an anatomically-based system for exhaustively describing all observable facial movement. Each observable component of facial movement is called an action unit or AU. All facial expressions can be decomposed into their constituent AUs.
Dynamic Emotional Communication View all 22 Articles. Researchers have theoretically proposed that humans decode other individuals' emotions or elementary cognitive appraisals from particular sets of facial action units AUs. Furthermore, the previous studies relied on facial expressions of actors and no study used spontaneous and dynamic facial expressions in naturalistic settings. We investigated this issue using video recordings of facial expressions filmed unobtrusively in a real-life emotional situation, specifically loss of luggage at an airport.